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Solved by verified expert :1. A Hjulstrom Diagram type of relationship does not directly apply to which agent oferosion? (Fig 16.12 in text might help)a. fluvial.b. coastal.c. aeolian.d. glacial.e. all of the above.2. In what form does rainwater drain off slopes?a. as rills.b. as overland flow.c. as gullies.d. all of the above.e. none of the above.3. Which part of a stream’s total load is chemically altered and transported?a. dissolved load.b. suspended load.c. traction materials.d. bedload.e. saltation materials.4. Undercutting of a bank by its stream may trigger:a. an earthquake.b. soil creep.c. mass wasting processes.d. movement of a rock glacier.e. solifluction.5. Rivers eroding into a land surface, in the absence of other forces, usually tend toerode a ____ -shaped form.a. groove.b) V.c) U.d. flat bottomed. e. delta.6. Which of the following is closely associated with the former position of a riverchannel?a. meander scars.b. oxbow lakes.c. cutoff meanders.d. oxbow swamps.e. all of the above.7. The cascading forward motion of breaking waves as they rush upon the shore iscalled:a. an oscillation wave.b. swash.c. backwash.d. wave refraction.e. a littoral current.8. The geomorphic tool that accomplishes the most gradational work for the Earth’s landsurface as a whole is:a. streams.b. wind.c. waves.d. glaciers.e. gravity.9. Which of the following processes is attributed primarily to the internal heat energy ofthe earth?a. mountain-building.b. heating of the soil.c. heating of the atmosphere.d. mass wasting.e. all of the above.10. What is subduction?a. a process by which large areas of continents are inundated by lava. b. the descent of ocean-floor material into ocean trenches.c. the deep earthquakes associated with the collision of two tectonic plates.d. the sinking of continents into ocean trenches.e. all of the above correctly describe subduction.11. The rock cycle refers to the fact that:a. rocks in the continents have moved from the equator to the poles and back.b. oxides become silicates, which are weathered back to oxides again.c. a mineral crystal can be part of an igneous rock, a sedimentary rock, and a metamorphic rockin sequence.d. rock magnetism changes back and forth through time.e. rocks were discovered during the Tour de France in 1873.12. What types of event most permanently modify landscapes within a givenenvironment?a. events of moderate intensity that occur quite frequently.b. infrequent, but catastrophic events.c. only in humid environments is the catastrophic event most important.d. only in tropical environments is the catastrophic event most important.e. all of the above.13. You notice a stream with many oxbow lakes. What might this indicate to you?a. the stream is braided, and the channel flow fluctuates greatly throughout the year.b. the flood plain is composed of easily eroded sandy material and meander shifting is quiteactive.c. precipitation in the area has probably recently increased.d. the area was subject to severe glaciation during the Pleistocene period.e. this area was extensively farmed with animals before tractors became common.14. How does wave refraction affect an irregular coastline?a. wave energy is focused at headlands, rendering the coast more irregular.b. waves are more powerful in bays, rendering the coast more irregular.c. wave energy is focused at headlands, which gradually straightens the coast.d. waves diverge at headlands, spreading each unit of wave energy over a larger area.e. waves and the coastline symbiotically interact to reach commonality. 15. Unstratified debris from ice sheets, after deposition, is also known as:a. till.b. drift.c. diamict.d. all of the above.e. none of the above.16. Which of the following most greatly affects the ability of water to flow through thesoil?a. porosity.b. permeability.c. bulk density.d. storage capacity.e. textural classification.17. When does most deposition take place on a floodplain?a. during periods of low stream flow.b. during periods of normal stream flow.c. during "normal" floods (once every year or two).d. during "extreme" floods (perhaps once a century).e. only erosion occurs on floodplains.18. Which of the following lists in proper sequential order the four steps of thegradational process?a. erosion, transportation, weathering, deposition.b. weathering, deposition, erosion, transportation.c. transportation, erosion, deposition, weathering.d. weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition.e. they all occur simultaneously.19. What is the effect of the localized filling of a stream channel by sediment followingflooding?a. the slope is decreased, which lessens stream velocity and therefore erosion.b. the slope is increased, which increases velocity and therefore erosion.c. the slope is decreased as the stream becomes more sinuous in shape. d. filling has no substantial effect upon the slope of a stream.e. the stream reforms in an adjacent valley.20. The Hjulstrom diagram illustrates:a. the rate of movement of beach sand.b. the rate of movement of dune sand.c. the transportability of differing grain sizes in moving ice.d. the transportability of differing grain sizes in moving water.e. the rate of transport of differing slope movement materials during mass wasting.21. What is glacial outwash?a. clays deposited by glacial meltwater.b. unsorted glacial debris containing everything from boulders to clay.c. bursts of water from glacial surges.d. none of the above.e. all of the above.22. A high iron content most typically imparts which of the following colours to the soil?a. redb. blackc. brownd. whitee. yellow23. If the following are the dominant textural sizes within a soil, which soil likely retainsthe greatest amount of soil moisture?a. silty soilb. clay soilc. sandy soild. gravelly soil24. Folding is most commonly associated with which of the following rock types?a. igneousb. sedimentaryc. metamorphic d. none of the abovee. all of the above25. Which one of the following statements about a typical coarse-textured soil is true?a. It has a high water retention ability (storage capacity).b. It has a rapid water absorption capacity.c. It is composed primarily of silt and clay particles.d. It is likely to be found in a warm, moist environment.26. Which of the following is not true of seismic sea waves or tsunami?a. they produce giant waves in midocean areas, often capsizing large ships.b. they have enormous wavelengths, sometimes exceeding 100 km.c. they move at speeds up to 800 km per hour.d. they are more common in the Pacific, than in the Atlantic, Ocean.26. Karst topography is formed primarily bya. carbonic acid solutionb. mass wasting processesc. oxidation and hydrolysisd. exfoliation and hydration27. Sand on a beach moves in a zigzag pattern when waves strike the beach _____ , andthis movement of material is known as ___________a. at an angle; longshore driftb. at an angle; beach creepc. head on; longshore driftd. head on; beach creep28. As the velocity of a stream gradually increases from an initial value of zero, which ofthe following sizes of stream bed sediments will be eroded first?a. clay¬∑b. bouldersc. fine sandd. gravele. all particles become entrained at the same velocity29. Which soil horizon is most typically the elluvial layer? a. A horizonb. B horizonc. C horizond. R horizon30. A meandering stream is one that isa. completely stableb. completely unstablec. at a dynamic equilibrium between erosion and depositiond. a closed system in terms of energy and matter inpute. an open system in terms of energy but a closed system in terms of matter31. Most streams in North America experience their peak discharges in which season?a. spnngb. summerc. falld. wintere. stream flow is the same in all four seasons32. Which is not among the main soil-forming factors?a. climate.b. photosynthesis.c. topography.d. time.e. all of the above.33. Comes in a wide range of compositions and is usually composed of two or moremineral compounds.a. sedimentary rock.b. igneous rock.c. metamorphic rock.d. rock.34. Which of the following is true of closed systems?a. energy inputs come from an internal source. b. they are very uncommon at the earth’s surface.c. in terms of material, the earth may not be considered a closed system.d. all of the above statements are true of closed systems.35. Which of the following would represent the smallest stream in a drainage basin?a. a first-order stream.b. a third-order stream.c. a fifth-order stream.d. the stream with the highest order number in an area.36. What is the importance of negative feedback in the equilibrium theory of landformdevelopment?a. in general, negative feedback pushes the system away from equilibrium.b. negative feedback causes the slope angle to decrease below equilibrium slope levels.c. negative feedback attempts to stop the weathering process.d. none of the above.37. How does tectonic activity affect landforms?a. it creates disturbed geologic structures which eroded differentially.b. it provides the potential energy that triggers erosion.c. neither (a) nor (b) is correct.d. both (a) and (b) are correct.38. Which of the following is not a factor in the generation of waves?a. fetch.b. the Earth’s rotation.c. wind speed.d. the duration of the wind.39. Which of the following is most correct?a. the lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere are independent closed systems.b. the lithosphere is an inert system that does not interact with the atmosphere or biosphere.c. the lithosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere constantly interchange energy and materials.d. none of the above is true.