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Solved by verified expert :Geog 115, Final Exam Study GuideQuestions 1-20 : Weather Forecasting1. The weather data used to compile surface maps are obtained primarily from what instruments?(a) Doppler radars(b) wind profilers(c) rawinsondes(d) Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS)(e) Aeronautical Radio Inc., Communications Addressing and Reporting Systems (ACARS) 2. Non automated surface weather observation is made every day at Fresno Airport at 0300 UTC. Atwhat local time in January is the measurement made?(a) 6:00 PM(b) 8:00 PM(c) 5:00 PM(d) 7:00 PM(e) 9:00 PM 3. Temperature, pressure, wind and moisture are measured through the depth of the troposphere bywhat instrument?(a) rawinsonde(b) wind profiler(c) Doppler radar(d) GOES satellite 4. What is the name given to the final weather product created with data gathered from a rawinsonde?(a) sounding(b) surface analysis(c) reflectivity image(d) wind profiler data image(e) weather balloon-o-gram 5. Which statement(s) is (are) true concerning “El Niño”?(a) The term “El Niño” originally was used by fishermen to refer to a warm ocean currentalong South America’s west coast.(b) El Niño is Spanish for “the Christ Child”.(c) Residents of coastal Peru and Ecuador associate El Nino with drought.(d) All of the above are correct.(e) (a) and (b) are correct, (c) is incorrect.6. When an El Niño is occurring, which of the following is true?(a) The surface pressure is above-normal at Tahiti.(b) The surface pressure is below-normal at Darwin, Australia.(c) The trade winds are stronger than normal.(d) All of the above are correct.(e) None of the above is correct. 7. The Southern Oscillation Index is determined by monitoring which variable?(a) sea surface temperature(b) sea level pressure(c) sea level elevation(d) wind speeds8. The forecasting technique that produces several versions of a forecast model, each beginning withslightly different weather information to reflect errors in the measurements, is called:a. climatology forecastingb. redundancy analysisc. persistence forecastingd. ensemble forecastinge. probability forecasting 9. A weather warning indicates that:a. the atmospheric conditions are favorable for hazardous weather over a particular region.b. hazardous weather is either imminent or occurring within the forecast area.c. hazardous weather is likely to occur within the forecast area during the next 24 hours.d. hazardous weather is frequently observed in a particular region. 10. The period over which the rates of change of variables are evaluated is known as ___________and is usually _______________a. Timestring, 10 minutesb. Timestep, 10 minutesc. Timestep, 5 minutesd. Timestep, 20 minutes 11. The least accurate forecast method of predicting the weather two days into the future duringchangeable weather conditions is usually the:a. trend method.b. persistence forecast.c. analogue method.d. prediction by weather types.e. numerical weather prediction. 12. A persistence forecast could be quite accurate when:a. a frontal system approaches your location at constant speed.b. you are positioned in the middle of a large, stationary air mass.c. the weather has been unusually cold for several days.d. upper level winds blow straight from west to east. 13. A forecast method that compares past weather maps and weather patterns to those of the presentis:a. persistence forecasting.b. the analogue method.c. the trend method.d. nowcasting. 14. Suppose that where you live the middle of January is typically several degrees warmer than therest of the month. If you forecast this "January thaw" for the middle of next January, you wouldhave made a: a. forecast based on the analogue method.b. persistence forecast.c. forecast based on weather types.d. probability forecast.e. climatological forecast.15. A probability forecast that calls for a "40 percent chance of rain" means that:a. there is a 40 percent chance that it will not rain within the forecast area.b. there is a 40 percent chance that any random place in the forecast area will receive measurablerain.c. it will rain on 40 percent of the forecast area.d. it will rain during 40 percent of the time over the forecast area. 16. Which of the following is presently a problem with modern-day weather predictions?a. computer forecast models make assumptions about the atmosphere that are not always correct.b. there are regions of the world where only space observations are available.c. computer models do not always adequately interpret the surface’s influence on the weather.d. the distance between grid points on some models is too large to pick up smaller-scale weatherfeatures such as thunderstorms.e. all of the above 17. When making a forecast, a meteorologist typically examines:a. surface charts.b. upper-air charts.c. radar displays.d. satellite imagery.e. all of the above 18. When several numerical weather prediction models produce similar progs,a. a forecaster has little faith in the model predictions.b. more confidence can be placed in the forecast.c. the forecast is considered robust.d. both b and c 19. The numerical model currently used by the national weather service is known as(a) Multiscale numerical model(b) Eta model(c) Aeromod model(d) Gaussian model 20. The numerical models consist of these set of equations(a) forecasting and diagnostic equations(b) forecasting and prognostic equations(c) prognostic and diagnostic equations(d) mesoscale and prognostic equations Questions 21-40 Hurricanes 21. The vertical structure of the hurricane shows an upper-level ____ of air, and a surface ____ of air.a. outflow; inflowb. outflow; outflowc. inflow; outflowd. inflow; inflow22 . Which would you NOT expect to observe as the eye of a hurricane passes directly over your area?a. an increase in surface temperatureb. a very low surface pressure readingc. high windsd. little or no precipitation23. In a hurricane, the eye wall represents:a. the exact center of the storm.b. the area of broken cloudiness at the center.c. a region of light winds and low pressure.d. a zone of intense thunderstorms around the center.e. a layer of cirrus cloud in the center of the storm.24. The strongest winds in a hurricane are found:a. at the center of the storm.b. in the eye wall.c. in the rain bands.d. at upper levels, above the center of the hurricane.e. near the periphery of the hurricane.25. The main source of energy for a hurricane is the:a. upper-level jet stream.b. rising of warm air and sinking of cold air in the vicinity of weather fronts.c. warm ocean water and release of latent heat of condensation.d. ocean currents and tides.26. Hurricanes dissipate when:a. they move over colder water.b. they move over land.c. surface inflow of air exceeds upper-level outflow of air.d. all of these27. Which below is NOT an atmospheric condition conducive to the formation of hurricanes?a. a region of converging surface winds at the surfaceb. warm waterc. strong upper-level windsd. cold air alofte. moist, humid surface air28. Just before a storm becomes a fully developed hurricane, it is in the ____ stage.a. tropical depressionb. tropical disturbancec. tropical stormd. Cyclonee. Typhoon29. The main difference between a hurricane and a tropical storm is that: a.b.c.d. hurricanes are larger.tropical storms are more than 500 miles from the U.S. mainland.winds speeds are greater in a hurricane.hurricanes have a clearly defined eye on satellite photographs. 30. The first three stages of a developing hurricane are (from first stage to third stage):a. tropical disturbance, tropical storm, and typhoon.b. tropical depression, tropical disturbance, and tropical storm.c. tropical disturbance, tropical depression, and tropical storm.d. cyclone, typhoon, and tropical storm.31. Which method below describes how scientists have tried to modify hurricanes?a. putting an oil slick over the ocean water and igniting itb. seeding the hurricanes with silver iodidec. igniting huge smoke bombs in the eye of the stormd. seeding the hurricanes with hair-thin pieces of aluminum called chaff.32. The strongest winds in a hurricane heading westward toward Florida would most likely be found on the____ side.a. Northernb. Southernc. Easternd. Western33. Most of the destruction caused by a hurricane is due to:a. high winds.b. flooding.c. tornadoes.d. hail.34. A hurricane warning:a. gives the exact location where a hurricane will make landfall.b. is usually issued several days ahead of a hurricane’s arrival.c. gives the percent chance of a hurricane’s center passing within 65 miles of a community.d. is issued when a hurricane approaches to within 500 miles of the U.S. mainland.e. is issued whenever surface wind speeds exceed 74 mi/hr.35. The ____ is a measure of hurricane strength based on hurricane winds and central pressure.a. Fujita scaleb. Richter scalec. Saffir-Simpson scaled. Beaufort scale36. Hurricanes can’t form along the equator because:a. there isn’t much water along the equator, it’s mostly land.b. the Coriolis force is too small along the equator.c. there are no feedback mechanisms along the equator.d. it’s too humid for the ocean water to evaporate.37. A tropical forecaster sees a cluster of thunderstorms over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and predicts that itwill not develop into a hurricane. What factor led the forecaster to come to this conclusion?(a) The satellite derived sea surface temperature was 30 o C.(b) There was very strong wind shear in the vicinity of the thunderstorms. (c) The cluster of thunderstorms was located at 15 oN.(d) None of the above would help the forecaster in the decision.38. Which statement related to the name list for tropical cyclones that form in the Atlantic Ocean is notcorrect?a. The list is alphabetical;b. The list alternates male and female names.c. Names originate from the English, Spanish and French languages.d. Letters of the alphabet that have few names that start with that letter are omitted from the list.e. If there are so many cyclones that the list is exhausted the list is started over but a “2” appended afterthe name to indicate the second use of the list. 39. At what stage is a tropical weather system assigned a name?a. tropical disturbanceb. tropical depressionc. tropical stormd. hurricane 40. Suppose the eye of a hurricane passed directly over you, and you survived the experience. If winds werefrom the northeast as the eyewall first approached you, from what direction did the winds blow when theeyewall reached you the second time?a. NWb. NEc. SEd. SWQuestions 41-60 : Tornadoes 41. Most tornadoes move from:a. northwest to southwest.b. southwest to northeast.c. south to north.d. southeast to northwest. 42. Which of the following factors is most important in determining the strength of a tornado?a. diameterb. air temperaturec. durationd. central pressure 43. The most frequent time of day for tornadoes to form is in the:a. early morning just after sunrise.b. late morning just before noon.c. evening just after sunset.d. afternoon.e. middle of the night. 44. In the United States, tornadoes are most frequent during the __________, and least frequent during the __________.a. summer, fall b. spring, winterc. spring, falld. summer, wintere. winter, fall45. At home, when confronted with an approaching tornado, you should:a. open the windows right away.b. grab a video camera and start filming.c. listen to see whether the tornado has an audible roar.d. seek shelter immediately. 46. Damage to structures inflicted by tornadoes can be caused by:a. flying debris.b. the tornadoes high winds.c. the drop in air pressure as a tornado moves overhead.d. all of the abovee. none of the above 47. After a tornado is spotted:a. a tornado watch is issued.b. its direction of movement is carefully monitored by aircraft.c. a tornado warning is issued.d. hail begins to fall from the cloud.e. attempts may be made to change its direction of movement. 48. Most waterspouts:a. form in severe thunderstorms.b. draw water up into their core.c. have rotating winds of less than 45 knots.d. form in an area where winds are descending from a cloud.e. actually form over land. 49. The "Tornado Alley" region of the United States is locateda. in Florida.b. in the Central Plains.c. in the Ohio Valley.d. in the mid-Atlantic states.e. along the Gulf Coast. 50. The National Weather Service issues a tornado watch when __________and tornado warningwhen __________.(a) conditions are favorable for tornado formation; a tornado is believed to be present in a warning area(b) a tornado is believed to be present in a warning area; conditions are favorable for tornadoformation(c) emergency management personnel should warn the public to take cover immediately; emergency management personnel should abandon the warning effort and take cover themselves.(d) debris from a tornado is expected to impact an area; the debris is actually observed and is anobstruction to traffic 51. Which statement about tornado safety is false? (a) During a tornado you should seek shelter in the lowest floor in the building in the mostinterior room.(b) If caught outdoors in your car, you should park under a highway overpass and seek shelternear the girders of the bridge.(c) If no shelter is available and you are in your car, abandon your car and find a low-lying areaand lay flat.(d) Put as many walls between you and the tornado as possible.(e) Abandon mobile homes and find stronger shelter or lie in a ditch.52. The National Weather Service has just issued a tornado warning that includes your city. You arethe manager of a movie theater, and there is a show with 500 people attending. What should youdo?(a) Let the show go on as planned but pay attention to weather reports for additional information.(b) Interrupt the show and take the crowd to the basement of the building or an interior room inan orderly manner.(c) Stop the show and send everybody home.(d) Grab your camcorder, go outside and film the impending tornado for the theater.(e) Scream and call your mother for advice. 53. When is a strong tornado most likely to occur?(a) 3:00 A.M., mid-May(b) 3:00 A.M., mid-October(c) 5:00 P.M., mid-October(d) 5:00 P.M., mid-May(e) 9:00 P.M., mid-June 54. A map of the distribution of tornadoes around the world would correspond to:(a) a map of the rural areas because urban areas do not have tornadoes.(b) a map of the world’s mobile home parks since these attract tornadoes.(c) a map showing hurricane origin areas because hurricanes are essentially large tornadoes.(d) a map of the central United States because other areas of the world do not have tornadoes.(e) a map of the world’s prime agricultural growing areas because thunderstorms provide the water necessary for growth of crops. 55. Most tornadoes in California are of this type.(a) gustnado(b) dust devil(c) landspout(d) waterspout(e) cold air funnel 56. A tornado rips through a college (luckily on a holiday when no one is on campus). The tornadodestroys brick buildings and leaves no bricks or debris on the foundations. What is the EF-scalerating of this tornado?EF1; (b)EF2; (c) EF3; (d) EF4; (e) EF5 57. Which of the following was not a problem with the original Fujita scale?(a) Scale ranking was always based on damage only.(b) Rankings overestimated the wind speeds in more violent tornadoes.(c) The original damage assessment guidelines were not detailed and specific.(d) Damage assessment did not take into account structural integrity of buildings. 58. What is the maximum ranking of a tornado on the EF-scale?a. EF-3b. EF-5c. EF-7d. EF-10 59. Which U.S. state has the most tornadoes per 10,000 square mile area?a. Texasb. Floridac. Illinoisd. Nebraskae. Oklahoma 60. What region of the U.S. has the largest number of reported tornadoes?a. the Northeastb. the Great Lakesc. the Great Plainsd. the Desert Southweste. the central Atlantic Coast