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Solved by verified expert :Question 1A measure of earthquake size based on the amount of energy released during the earthquake.a. intensityb. focusc. magnituded. epicenter1 pointsQuestion 2The point of initial breaking or rupturing within the Earth.a. scarpb. epicenterc. focusd. subticentere. magnitude1 pointsQuestion 3Which of the following is not included in determining the moment magnitude of an earthquake?a. the rigidity of the rocks along the faultb. how intense the shaking felt to people near the epicenterc. an estimate of the area along the fault that rupturedd. the amount of movement along the fault1 pointsQuestion 4What is the name of the earthquake magnitude scale that is used today by seismologists?a. Seismograph Scaleb. Moment Magnitude Scalec. Richter Scaled. Modified Mercalli Scale1 pointsQuestion 5A magnitude 7 earthquake produces approximately _____ times more ground motion (shaking) than a magnitude 6 earthquake.a. 2b. 100c. 10d. 321 pointsQuestion 6A magnitude 7 earthquake releases ______ times more energy than a magnitude 6 earthquake.a. 10b. 100c. 2d. 32e. 71 pointsQuestion 7The Modified Mercalli Scale measures all of the following except __________.a. the amount of damage that occurred within homesb. the amount of movement along a fault planec. the extent of damage to buildings and human-made structuresd. how people perceived the shaking1 pointsQuestion 8Which of the following statements regarding the 2001 Nisqually earthquake in Washington and the 1994 Northridge earthquake in California is TRUE?a. They had approximately the same magnitude and the same intensityb. They had approximately the same magnitude but different intensityc. They had approximately the same intensity but different magnitude1 pointsQuestion 9If the motion on a geologic fault is such that the hanging wall moves down relative to the foot wall, then the fault is called a ___________.a. Transform faultb. Footwall faultc. Normal faultd. Reverse faulte. Strike-slip fault1 pointsQuestion 10Scientists classify a particular fault to be an “active fault” if it has moved during the past __________ years.a. 2 millionb. 20c. 10,000d. 1001 pointsQuestion 11Which seismic waves travel the fastest?a. Surface wavesb. P wavesc. Love wavesd. Rayleigh wavese. S waves1 pointsQuestion 12The written record of seismic waves is called a _____________.a. Seismogramb. Seismographc. Seismolined. Seismoplot1 pointsQuestion 13Which of the following near-surface earth materials will amplify ground shaking the most? (This material will greatly increase the intensity of shaking.)a. Water-saturated silt and mudb. alluviumc. hard igneous rocksd. sedimentary rocks1 pointsQuestion 14Which of the following statements regarding strain is MOST accurate?a. strain is deformation that results from stressb. strain and stress are two words that mean the same thingc. stress is deformation that results from straind. stress and strain are both caused by elastic rebound1 pointsQuestion 15Which of the following statements about earthquakes is NOT true?a. strong earthquakes can occur in locations far from plate boundaries (i.e. Missouri, South Carolina)b. earthquake are not randomly distributedc. earthquakes occur along all three types of plate boundaries: convergent, divergent, and transformd. most of the world’s largest earthquakes (> M 9) occur along transform plate boundariesQuestion 1A surface rupture along a fault that creates a small step or low cliff is called __________.a. fault liquefactionb. fault stairsc. an earthquake divided. a fault chasme. a fault scarp1 pointsQuestion 2Why was the 1994 Northridge earthquake so much more costly than the 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake?a. The Northridge earthquake was a larger magnitude earthquakeb. The Northridge earthquake was associated with a major tsunamic. The Northridge earthquake produced more intense shakingd. The Northridge earthquake was in a more populated area with more buildings, thus there was more to damage1 pointsQuestion 3During an earthquake, intense shaking may cause water-saturated sand to change rapidly from solid to a liquid (“quick sand”). What is this process called?a. scarpb. resonancec. ground accelerationd. liquefaction1 pointsQuestion 4During the 1964 Prince William Sound Earthquake there was significant regional ground deformation. What was the maximum vertical uplift experienced in this area?a. 2.4 feetb. 8 feetc. 10 feetd. 18 feete. 30 feetf. 40 feet1 pointsQuestion 5What earthquake effect led to the formation of “earthquakes lakes” and serious flood hazards in China in 2008?a. dam failureb. landslidesc. regional changes in land elevationd. liquefactione. fires1 pointsQuestion 6Approximately 80% of damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was caused by ________________.a. landslidesb. firesc. liquefactiond. disease outbreak1 pointsQuestion 7Landslides generated by the 1994 Northridge earthquake resulted in _______________.a. liquefactionb. an outbreak of valley feverc. the release of poisonous gasesd. burial of nearly 200 homese. widespread flooding and the formation of new lakes1 pointsQuestion 8Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that humans have caused earthquakes?a. speeding plate motion by heating the groundb. injecting liquids (waste water) into underground fracturesc. creating underground nuclear explosionsd. adding extra weight to the crust (building a dam)1 pointsQuestion 9We now have the ability to predict the size (within 1 order of magnitude) and the timing (within 3 days) of future earthquakes.TrueFalse1 pointsQuestion 10What is the probability of at least one magnitude 6.7 or greater earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay region occurring before 2032?a. 14%b. 21%c. 27%d. 50%e. 62%1 pointsQuestion 11Most large earthquakes are preceded by foreshocks that become progressively larger in the days leading up to the powerful major shock.TrueFalse1 pointsQuestion 12One method of short-term earthquake prediction involves looking for ____________, sections along active fault zones that have the potential to produce large earthquakes but have not produced one recently.a. seismic gapsb. microearthquakesc. stratigraphyd. resistivitye. paleoseismicity1 pointsQuestion 13Warning systems that detect the first ground motion caused by an earthquake have the potential to provide about a ___________ warning before the arrival of damaging earthquake waves.a. 1 minuteb. 15 minutec. 30 minuted. 1 houre. 3 hour1 pointsQuestion 14Which of the following building materials is most likely to collapse during an earthquake? (This material is the most dangerous as it will not withstand ground shaking.)a. reinforced concrete buildingsb. unreinforced concrete buildingsc. wood framed buildings1 pointsQuestion 15If you are in your home and suddenly feel a large earthquake, what should you do?a. go stand in the nearest doorwayb. get outside as quickly as possiblec. take cover under a sturdy desk or tabled. all of the above are equally good things to do